Jahrhundert Monte Cassino S. Bartholom. di Carpinelo Monte Cassino Monte Cassino Monte Cassino — Monte Cassino Monte Cassino 3) — Die Abtei von Montecassino ist eine der berühmtesten Abteien der Welt, was zum Teil auf die reiche Geschichte der Zerstörung und Wiederherstellung. monte cassino heute.
Monte CassinoJahrhundert Monte Cassino S. Bartholom. di Carpinelo Monte Cassino Monte Cassino Monte Cassino — Monte Cassino Monte Cassino 3) — monte cassino heute. Die Abtei von Montecassino ist eine der berühmtesten Abteien der Welt, was zum Teil auf die reiche Geschichte der Zerstörung und Wiederherstellung.
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Montecasino Bird Gardens. Read More. The German XIV Corps War Diary for 23 March noted that the battalions in the front line had strengths varying between 40 and men.
Alexander's strategy in Italy was to "force the enemy to commit the maximum number of divisions in Italy at the time the cross-channel invasion [of Normandy] is launched".
Fifth Army U. II Corps and French Expeditionary Corps would be on the left and Eighth Army British XIII Corps and Polish II Corps on the right.
With the arrival of the spring weather, ground conditions were improved and it would be possible to deploy large formations and armour effectively.
The plan for Operation Diadem was that U. II Corps on the left would attack up the coast along the line of Route 7 towards Rome.
The French Corps to their right would attack from the bridgehead across the Garigliano originally created by British X Corps in the first battle in January into the Aurunci Mountains which formed a barrier between the coastal plain and the Liri Valley.
British XIII Corps in the centre right of the front would attack along the Liri valley. It was hoped that being a much larger force than their 4th Indian Division predecessors they would be able to saturate the German defences which would as a result be unable to give supporting fire to each other's positions.
Improved weather, ground conditions and supply would also be important factors. Once again, the pinching manoeuvres by the Polish and British Corps were key to the overall success.
Canadian I Corps would be held in reserve ready to exploit the expected breakthrough. Once the German 10th Army had been defeated, U.
VI Corps would break out of the Anzio beachhead to cut off the retreating Germans in the Alban Hills. The large troop movements required for this took two months to execute.
They had to be carried out in small units to maintain secrecy and surprise. This was planned to keep German reserves held back from the Gustav Line.
Movements of troops in forward areas were confined to the hours of darkness and armoured units moving from the Adriatic front left behind dummy tanks and vehicles so the vacated areas appeared unchanged to enemy aerial reconnaissance.
The deception was successful. As late as the second day of the final Cassino battle, Kesselring estimated the Allies had six divisions facing his four on the Cassino front.
In fact there were thirteen. The first assault 11—12 May on Cassino opened at with a massive artillery bombardment with 1, guns on the Eighth Army front and guns on the Fifth Army front, manned by British, Americans, Poles, New Zealanders, South Africans and French.
By daylight the U. II Corps had made little progress, but their Fifth Army colleagues, the French Expeditionary Corps, had achieved their objectives and were fanning out in the Aurunci Mountains toward the Eighth Army to their right, rolling up the German positions between the two armies.
On the Eighth Army front, British XIII Corps had made two strongly opposed crossings of the Garigliano by British 4th Infantry Division and 8th Indian Division.
Crucially, the engineers of Dudley Russell 's 8th Indian Division had by the morning succeeded in bridging the river enabling the armour of 1st Canadian Armoured Brigade to cross and provide the vital element so missed by the Americans in the first battle and New Zealanders in the second battle to beat off the inevitable counter-attacks from German tanks that would come.
In the mountains above Cassino, the aptly named Mount Calvary Monte Calvario , or Point on Snakeshead Ridge was taken by the Poles only to be recaptured by German paratroops.
Polish II Corps lost officers and 3, other ranks in assaults on Oberst Ludwig Heilmann 's 4th Parachute Regiment, until the attacks were called off.
By the afternoon of 12 May, the Gari bridgeheads were increasing despite furious counter-attacks whilst the attrition on the coast and in the mountains continued.
By 13 May the pressure was starting to tell. The German right wing began to give way to Fifth Army. On 14 May Moroccan Goumiers , travelling through the mountains parallel to the Liri valley, ground which was undefended because it was not thought possible to traverse such terrain, outflanked the German defence while materially assisting the XIII Corps in the valley.
In , the Goumiers were colonial troops formed into four Groupements des Tabors Marocains "Groups of Moroccan Tabors"; GTM , each consisting of three loosely organised Tabors roughly equivalent to a battalion specialised in mountain warfare.
Juin's French Expeditionary Corps consisted of the Commandement des Goums Marocains "Command of Moroccan Goumiers"; CGM with the 1st, 3rd and 4th GTM of General Augustin Guillaume  totalling some 7, fighting men,  broadly the same infantry strength as a division, and four more conventional divisions: the 2nd Moroccan Infantry Division 2 DIM , the 3rd Algerian Infantry Division 3 DIA , the 4th Moroccan Mountain Division 4 DMM and the 1st Free French Division 1 DM.
In spite of the stiffening enemy resistance, the 2nd Moroccan Division penetrated the Gustave [sic] Line in less than two-day's fighting.
The next 48 hours on the French front were decisive. The knife-wielding Goumiers swarmed over the hills, particularly at night and General Juin's entire force showed an aggressiveness hour after hour that the Germans could not withstand.
Cerasola, San Giorgio , Mt. D'Oro, Ausonia and Esperia were seized in one of the most brilliant and daring advances of the war in Italy For this performance, which was to be a key to the success of the entire drive on Rome, I shall always be a grateful admirer of General Juin and his magnificent FEC.
On 15 May, the British 78th Division came into the British XIII Corps line from reserve passing through the bridgehead divisions to execute the turning move to isolate Cassino from the Liri valley.
On 17 May, Polish II Corps launched their second attack on Monte Cassino. Under constant artillery and mortar fire from the strongly fortified German positions and with little natural cover for protection, the fighting was fierce and at times hand-to-hand.
With their line of supply threatened by the Allied advance in the Liri valley, the Germans decided to withdraw from the Cassino heights to the new defensive positions on the Hitler Line.
On the Cassino high ground the survivors of the second Polish offensive were so battered that "it took some time to find men with enough strength to climb the few hundred yards to the summit.
Units of the Eighth Army advanced up the Liri valley and Fifth Army up the coast to the Hitler defensive line renamed the Senger Line at Hitler 's insistence to minimise the significance if it was penetrated.
An immediate follow-up assault failed and Eighth Army then decided to take some time to reorganize. Getting 20, vehicles and 2, tanks through the broken Gustav Line was a major job taking several days.
The next assault on the line commenced on 23 May with Polish II Corps attacking Piedimonte San Germano defended by the redoubtable German 1st Parachute Division on the right and 1st Canadian Infantry Division fresh from Eighth Army reserve in the centre.
On 24 May, the Canadians had breached the line and 5th Canadian Armoured Division poured through the gap. On 25 May the Poles took Piedimonte and the line collapsed.
The way was clear for the advance northwards on Rome and beyond. As the Canadians and Poles launched their attack on 23 May, Major General Lucian Truscott , who had replaced Lucas as commander of the U.
VI Corps in February, launched a two pronged attack using five three U. The German 14th Army, facing this thrust, was without any armoured divisions because Kesselring had sent his armour south to assist the German 10th Army in the Cassino action.
A single armoured division, the 26th Panzer , was in transit from north of the Italian capital of Rome where it had been held anticipating the non-existent seaborne landing the Allies had faked and so was unavailable to fight.
By 25 May, with the German 10th Army in full retreat, Truscott's VI Corps was, as planned, driving eastwards to cut them off.
By the next day they would have been astride the line of retreat and 10th Army, with all Kesselring's reserves committed to them, would have been trapped.
At this point, astonishingly, Clark ordered Truscott to change his line of attack from a northeasterly one to Valmontone on Route 6 to a northwesterly one directly towards Rome.
Reasons for Clark's decision are unclear and controversy surrounds the issue. Truscott later wrote in his memoirs that Clark "was fearful that the British were laying devious plans to be first into Rome",  a sentiment somewhat reinforced in Clark's own writings.
However, General Alexander, C-in-C of the AAI, had clearly laid down the Army boundaries before the battle and Rome was allocated to the Fifth Army.
At the time, Truscott was shocked, writing later. I was dumbfounded. This was no time to drive to the northwest where the enemy was still strong; we should pour our maximum power into the Valmontone Gap to insure the destruction of the retreating German Army.
I would not comply with the order without first talking to General Clark in person. On the 26th the order was put into effect. He went on to write.
There has never been any doubt in my mind that had General Clark held loyally to General Alexander's instructions, had he not changed the direction of my attack to the northwest on 26 May, the strategic objectives of Anzio would have been accomplished in full.
To be first in Rome was a poor compensation for this lost opportunity. An opportunity was indeed missed and seven divisions of 10th Army  were able to make their way to the next line of defence, the Trasimene Line where they were able to link up with 14th Army and then make a fighting withdrawal to the formidable Gothic Line north of Florence.
Battle honours were awarded to some units for their roles at Cassino. In addition, subsidiary battle honours were given to some units which participated in specific engagements during the first part.
These were Monastery Hill , Castle Hill and Hangman's Hill. Units which participated in the later part of the battle were awarded the honour ' Cassino II'.
All members of the Polish units received the Monte Cassino Commemorative Cross. The capture of Monte Cassino came at a high price.
The Allies suffered around 55, casualties in the Monte Cassino campaign. German casualty figures are estimated at around 20, killed and wounded.
The town of Cassino was completely razed by the air and artillery bombardments especially by the air raid of 15 March , when 1, tons of bombs were dropped on the town  , and 2, of its prewar population of 20, were killed during the raids and the battle.
In the course of the battles, the ancient abbey of Monte Cassino, where St. Benedict first established the Rule that ordered monasticism in the west, was entirely destroyed by Allied bombing and artillery barrages in February During prior months in the Italian autumn of , two officers in the Hermann Göring Panzer Division , Captain Maximilian Becker and Lieutenant Colonel Julius Schlegel, proposed the removal of Monte Cassino's treasures to the Vatican and Vatican-owned Castel Sant'Angelo ahead of the approaching front.
They had to find the materials necessary for crates and boxes, find carpenters among their troops, recruit local labourers to be paid with rations of food plus twenty cigarettes a day and then manage the "massive job of evacuation centered on the library and archive",  a treasure "literally without price".
Among the treasures removed were Titians , an El Greco and two Goyas. The American writer Walter M. Miller, Jr. As Miller stated, this experience deeply influenced him and directly resulted in his writing, a decade later, the book A Canticle for Leibowitz , which is considered a masterpiece of science fiction.
The book depicts a future order of monks living in the aftermath of a devastating nuclear war , and dedicated to the mission of preserving the surviving remnants of man's scientific knowledge until the day the outside world is again ready for it.
The assertion that the German use of the abbey was "irrefutable" was removed from the record in by the Office of the Chief of Military History.
A congressional inquiry to the same office in the 20th anniversary year of the bombing stated: "It appears that no German troops, except a small military police detachment, were actually inside the abbey" before the bombing.
The final change to the U. The day following the battle, the Goumiers, French Moroccan colonial troops attached to the French Expeditionary Forces, have been accused of rape and murder through the surrounding hills.
Some of these units were accused of committing atrocities against the Italian peasant communities in the region. Immediately after the cessation of fighting at Monte Cassino, the Polish government in Exile in London created the Monte Cassino campaign cross to commemorate the Polish part in the capture of the strategic point.
Also during this time, the Polish song writer Feliks Konarski , who had taken part in the fighting there, wrote his anthem " Czerwone maki na Monte Cassino " "The Red Poppies on Monte Cassino".
Later, an imposing Polish cemetery was laid out; this is prominently visible to anybody surveying the area from the restored monastery.
The Polish cemetery is the closest of all allied cemeteries in the area; an honor given to the Poles as their units are the ones credited with the liberation of the abbey.
The Commonwealth War Graves cemetery on the western outskirts of Cassino is a burial place of British, New Zealand, Canadian, Indian, Gurkha, Australian and South African casualties.
The French and Italians are on Route 6 in the Liri Valley; the Americans are at the Sicily—Rome American Cemetery and Memorial in Nettuno.
The German cemetery Deutsche Kriegsgräberstätte Cassino is approximately 2 miles 3. In the s, a subsidiary of the Pontificia Commissione di Assistenza distributed Lamps of Brotherhood , cast from the bronze doors of the destroyed Abbey, to representatives of nations that had served on both sides of the war to promote reconciliation.
In , a memorial was unveiled in Rome honouring the Allied forces that fought and died to capture the city. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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December Learn how and when to remove this template message. Italian Campaign. Invasion of Sicily Corkscrew Mincemeat Barclay Animals Chestnut Narcissus Fustian Ladbroke Gela Troina Centuripe Invasion of Italy Baytown Avalanche Slapstick Armistice with Italy Achse Naples Vatican bombing Volturno Line Barbara Line Bari raid Winter Line Bernhardt Line Monte la Difensa San Pietro Moro Ortona Rapido Monte Cassino Anzio Cisterna Diadem Strangle Trasimene Line Ancona Elba Gothic Line Rimini San Marino Gemmano Monte Castello Garfagnana Spring Offensive Tombola Bowler Roast Bologna Argenta Gap Montese Herring Collecchio Italian Civil War.
The Winter Line and the battle for Rome. Bernhardt Line Monte la Difensa San Pietro Moro Ortona Rapido Monte Cassino Anzio Cisterna Diadem Strangle Trasimene Line Ancona Elba.
Free French campaigns. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Further information: Battle of Monte Cassino order of battle January Further information: Battle of Rapido River.
Further information: Second Battle of Monte Cassino order of battle February Further information: Operation Strangle World War II and Operation Diadem.
Further information: Operation Diadem order of battle. Polish soldiers carry ammunition to the front lines just before the capture of the abbey.
Ruins of the town of Cassino after the battle. Main article: Marocchinate. The confusion between the J-3 and L-5 is easy to understand since they are very similar aircraft.
It is possible that the difference in height is explained by the one being a height above the abbey and the other a height above the valley floor. A country at war, — the mood of a nation.
Ashanti Publications. Bookmart Ltd, p. Real History of World War II: A New Look at the Past. Hoopoe Haven Guest House Hoopoe Haven is a small and peaceful country guest house, situated in beautiful Chartwell, but it is just a stones throw away from Montecasino, D Six Valk Avenue Guest House Situated in Fourways, Six Valk Avenue Guest House offers accommodation within easy reach of many attractions and activities.
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